Unit - Kilogram (kg) - ‘The quantity of matter in a body.’ The mass of a body is a measure of how difficult it is to start or stop. (a 'body', in this context, means a substance. Any substance: a gas, a liquid or a solid.)
Unit - newton (N) - ‘A push or a pull’. That which causes or tends to cause a change in motion of a body.
There are four forces acting on an aircraft in flight - pushing or pulling in different directions.
Unit - newton (N) - ‘The force due to gravity’. ( F = m × g ) where (m) is the mass of the object and (g) is the acceleration due to the gravity constant, which has the value of 9.81 m/s2. (A 1 kg mass ‘weighs’ 9.81 newtons)
If the mass of a A320 is 65000 kg and F = m × g it is necessary to generate: [65000 kg × 9.81 m/s2] 637650 N of lift force.
The point through which the weight of an aircraft acts.
Unit - Joule (J) - A force is said to do work on a body when it moves the body in the direction in which the force is acting. The amount of work done on a body is the product of the force applied to the body and the distance moved by that force in the direction in which it is acting.
If a force is exerted and no movement takes place, no work has been done.
Unit - Watt (W) - Power is simply the rate of doing work (the time taken to do work).
A joule per second (J/s) is called a watt (W), the unit of power. So the power used in this example is 4 watts.
Unit - Joule (J) - Mass has energy if it has the ability to do work. The amount of energy a body possesses is measured by the amount of work it can do. The unit of energy will, therefore, be the same as those of work, joules.
Unit - Joule (J) - ’The energy possessed by mass because of its motion’. ’A mass that is moving can do work in coming to rest’.
KE = ½ m V2 joules
The kinetic energy of a 1 kg mass of air moving at 52 m/s (100 knots) is 1352 joules; it possesses 1352 joules of kinetic energy. [ 0.5 × 1 × 52 × 52 = 1352 J ]
From the above example it can be seen that doubling the velocity will have a greater impact on the kinetic energy than doubling the mass (velocity is squared).
’A body will remain at rest or in uniform motion in a straight line unless acted on by an external force’.
To move a stationary object or to make a moving object change its direction, a force must be applied.
‘The opposition which a body offers to a change in motion’. A property of all bodies, inertia is a quality, but it is measured in terms of mass, which is a quantity.
’The acceleration of a body from a state of rest, or uniform motion in a straight line, is proportional to the applied force and inversely proportional to the mass’.
Unit - Metres per second (m/s). - ‘Rate of change of displacement’
Unit - Metres per second per second (m/s2) - ‘Rate of change of velocity’.
A force of 1 newton acting on a mass of 1 kg will produce an acceleration of 1 m/s2
Acceleration = Force / Mass
Unit - Mass × Velocity (kg-m/s) - ‘The quantity of motion possessed by a body’. The tendency of a body to continue in motion after being placed in motion.
‘Every action has an equal and opposite reaction’